Timeline

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Vaccine History Timeline

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1757

First reference in primary-source material to smallpox “inoculation” (i.e. variolation) in Nova Scotia, although the practice was generally discouraged by the colonial government because of worries that it would spread smallpox.

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1761

The Nova Scotia House of Assembly introduces “An Act to prevent the spreading of contagious distempers” and is primarily aimed at preventing the spread of disease from ships.

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1799

In response to yellow fever epidemics in United States, the House of Assembly expands its public health legislation. While it focused primarily on quarantine measures, it also allowed for the Governor or Lieutenant Governor to appoint a health…

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1815

During a smallpox epidemic, the House of Assembly passes a resolution to reserve £500 for the prevention of further spread of the disease. A circular is sent to rural physicians advising them that they would be compensated for the vaccination of…

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1827

A smallpox epidemic in Halifax leads to a mass vaccination program of over 1750 residents.

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1832

In response to an outbreak of cholera, the House of Assembly passes “An act more effectually to provide against the introduction of Infectious or Contagious Diseases, and the spreading thereof in this Province,” which allows for the creation…

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1841

During another smallpox epidemic, a bill is presented to the House of Assembly provide for the immediate vaccination of the poor in Halifax. Provincial Secretary Sir Rupert George sends a circular to the Boards of Health authorizing them to…

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1851

The Public Health Act provides that the Boards of Health may provide “for the expense of the vaccination of such poor and indigent persons as are unable to pay therefor.”

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1888

Legislation mandates that Halifax and every incorporated town must have a Board of Health and that municipalities must pay for the expenses that the Board incurs in preventing infectious/contagious diseases.

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1888

Legislation mandates that children cannot attend school without proof of smallpox vaccination from a “legally qualified medical practitioner.”

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1900

Legislation empowers the Chief Health Officer to “afford facilities for gratuitous vaccination.”

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1904

Provincial Board of Health is replaced by Department of Public health, and the title of Chief Health Officer is changed to Provincial Health Officer.

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1918

Acts related to Public Health are consolidated and revised. Legislation names many contagious diseases of concern to the province, including measles, mumps and rubella.

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1918

Public Health Act gives parents a choice to reject vaccination on the grounds of “conscientious objection,” allows parents to apply for a payment for vaccination if they cannot afford it, and establishes that children must be vaccinated…

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1918

The hospital ship Araguayan arrives in Halifax Harbour with returning soldiers, many of whom are sick with Spanish flu. It is quarantined for a time in the harbour. Despite this early arrival of the disease in Nova Scotia, the epidemic does not…

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1919

Legislation is introduced to allow for the appointment of public health nurses.

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1922

Conscientious objector certificates are made valid for one year only, meaning that parents will have to reapply for the certificate every year in order for their children to legally attend school.

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1926

The City Health Board in Halifax requests that the Infectious Disease Hospital be repaired as it is in such a dilapidated state that patients cannot be kept safely there in winter. It also requests funds to buy Diphtheria anti-toxin, as supplies…

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1938

The Department of Public Health is appointed a minister in addition to a Chief Health Officer.

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1938

Diphtheria toxoid is given on a large-scale basis free of charge. Vaccination for diphtheria occurs in clinics and schools. The vaccination campaign is intense between 1938 and 1940, with thousands being immunized.

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1940

Severe diphtheria outbreak in the Halifax area.

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1940

Children from Britain were brought to Nova Scotia to avoid bombing and placed in foster families. British children were Schick tested for diphtheria and toxoided if they were found to be susceptible, and were all vaccinated for smallpox. The…

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1940

The Divisional Medical Officer in the Western Division (Yarmouth area) calls for the province to uniformly establish Well Baby Clinics in his submission to the Department of Public Health’s Annual Report, as he finds that in areas where the…

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1941

Over 15 000 cases of measles reported in British Columbia–more than a third of which are reported in Metropolitan Vancouver (see “Measles in B.C.: Then and Now,” on ImmunizeBC.ca)

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1941

First large-scale clinics held for pertussis immunization using “Sauers” vaccine.

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1943

First use of combined pertussis/diphtheria vaccine.

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1949

Measles epidemics take place at various places throughout province.

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1949

Polio outbreak in Halifax region.

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1949

An American tourist dies of a suspected case of smallpox after travelling to NS via other parts of Canada.

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1951

Polio outbreak in province, resulting in 23 deaths. The Victoria General hospital in Halifax opens a new polio clinic, with branch clinics in Antigonish and Sydney.

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1955-1964

In British Columbia, rubeola (red measles) causes on average five deaths per year

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1955

National field trials of the Salk vaccine begin, and Nova Scotia begins to vaccinate school-age children.

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1956

The Department falls short of its plans to vaccinate 200,000 children with the Salk Vaccine due to a shortage; however, they do manage to vaccinate 100,000.

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1958

No cases of poliomyelitis reported in the province, reflecting the success of the vaccination campaign.

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1961

Dr. Vern Rideout and Dr. C.E. Van Rooyen, along with a team of other medical professionals, conduct the Wedgeport Vaccine Trials in the rural communities of Wedgeport and Comeau’s Hill to test the efficacy of the Sabin polio vaccine. Over 1500…

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June 1962

Results of Wedgeport Vaccine Trails are published in the CMAJ (Vol. 86, No. 26, June 30, 1962). Results show that “Fifty-one persons who lacked antibody to Type I poliovirus prior to vaccination showed a four-fold or greater rise in antibody…

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1962

Children in Halifax County are offered the Sabin vaccine. Over 80% of school children participated, according to the Annual Report of that year. A province-wide program is established then halted due on the advice of the Federal government…

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1962

Legislation introduces “Health Units” in the province and assigns the local Medical health Officer to be the director of each Unit.

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1963

After both an an inactivated and a live attenuated measles vaccine are licensed for use in the United States, the Health Branch of the Province of B.C. announces that it “does not plan to purchase and distribute measles vaccine free of…

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1964

Oral (Sabin) polio vaccination clinics are established throughout the province to administer vaccine to preschool and school-age children. Two clinics (spring and fall) administer two doses of the vaccine [PANS, Acc. 2013-017, File 1076].

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1964

Major rubella outbreaks across North America, including British Columbia

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May 1964

The B.C. Medical Journal publishes a “Public Health and Mental News” report discussing the risk of congenital birth defects in children born to women who develop rubella (“German” measles) during the first free months of pregnancy; report…

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Quebec test

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1965

The Annual Report of the Department of Public Health (DPH) records that 94.5% of Grade 1 children and 95.8% of Grade 6 children are vaccinated against smallpox, and that immunization against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus and poliomyelitis is at…

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May 1965

Pitman-Moore’s highly attenuated live virus “Lirugen” vaccine (for rubeola, or red measles) is licensed for use in Canada: the University of British Columbia’s Child Health Programme is the first to use the vaccine [131-F-5-F3a 032]

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Ontario test

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October 1965

First ever community measles clinic in British Columbia held in Kelowna: 1 756 children receive a dose of Pitman-Moore’s Lirugen, which provides protection against rubeola; similar community clinics are hosted in Vernon, Princeton, Trail, and…

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1966

The B.C. Medical Association endorses the recommendation of its Child Care Committee (Health Planning Council) that rubeola (red measles) vaccine be provided to all infants and children [129-F-5-F2 006]

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1967

Alderman L.E. Moir of the Halifax City Council requests that the Director of Health and Welfare prepare a written report on the feasibility of providing a mass measles vaccine campaign for the city.

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1967

At the annual meeting of the Associated Boards of Health of British Columbia, “a resolution urging the Provincial Government to purchase and distribute measles vaccine [is] passed unanimously” [131-F-5-F3a 028]

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1968

The live measles vaccine is introduced into the public health immunization program, but is only available for free at Department of Public Health immunization clinics. Those that go to their family doctor must pay for the vaccination.

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Feb. 7, 1968

B.C. Ministry of Health Services and Hospital Insurance declines the Vancouver Metropolitan Board of Health’s request for funding [131-F-5-F3a 020] for a mass immunization campaign to eradicate red measles

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Feb. 14, 1968

The Vancouver Metropolitan Board of Health issues a news release in an effort to raise awareness about the complications of measles infection, as well as the lack of provincial funding to provide “free measles vaccine to susceptible…

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Mar. 23-24, 1968

A campaign to immunize children up to the age of 12 [131-F-5-F3a 040] against red measles using attenuated live virus “Lirugen” vaccine commences throughout Greater Victoria Region [131-F-5-F3a 036]; campaign slogan is “End Measles Once and…

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Sept. 17, 1968

At their Fifteenth Annual Meeting, which is held in Vancouver, the Associated Boards of Health of B.C. again moves to “petition the Provincial Government [131-F-5-F3a 024] to provide, without charge, measles vaccine to health departments and…

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October 1968

The Deputy Minister of the DPH makes a recommendation in a letter to the Medical Society of Nova Scotia (MSNS) that public health nurses be allowed to carry out “agreed upon immunization injections without charge in public clinics and in…

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1969

The Interagency Committee on the Prevention of Birth Defects from Congenital Rubella in British Columbia meets to discuss the control of rubella; their report [131-F-5-F3c 051] recommends that the Health Branch provide rubella vaccine free of…

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1969

Nova Scotia legislature passes the Medical Act of Nova Scotia.

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1969

Measles and Rubella are made “reportable diseases” in Nova Scotia (i.e. health care professionals and teachers are obliged by law to report these diseases to the Department if encountered).

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1969

The City of Vancouver proposes a plan immunize at least 80% of the “estimated total [131-F-5-F3a 013] measles susceptible population of 50,000 children,” which will include an “educational program [131-F-5-F3a 013] . . . to ensure that the…

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Feb. 12, 1969

For the fiscal year 1969-1970, in response to recommendations from the Health Officers’ Council and the Child Care Committee of the B.C. Medical Association, the Provincial Government provides funding to the Health Branch to “offer every…

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June 1969

Limited provincial funding is approved for the cost of the B.C. Measles Vaccination Program; initial plan is to secure approximately 55 000 doses of the single-dose attenuated live virus “Lirugen” vaccine [131-F-5-F3a 030]; a June 1969…

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October 1969

The MSNS recommends to the DPH that doctors be provided with the live measles antigen free of charge; the DPH, however, does not do so due to high cost of vaccine [PANS, Acc. 2013-017, File 1495].

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1969

The Atlantic Health Unit (Halifax area) changes from a school-based immunization program to a “community-based” immunization program [PANS, RG 25, Vol. 674, File 10].

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1970

Private physicians receive free killed vaccines for use in their offices that are part of the province’s immunization program from the DPH.

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Feb. 18, 1970

The Metropolitan Board of Health of Greater Vancouver endorses the province-wide implementation of a rubella control program [131-F-5-F3b 048], in anticipation of the development of an effective vaccine

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March 1970

A rubella epidemic [131-F-5-F3b 011] breaks out in Metropolitan Vancouver Region and throughout the province

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May 1970

Canada’s Food and Drug Directorate licenses two new live virus German measles (Rubella) vaccines [Canadian Medical News 30 May 1970] for distribution in Canada: Cendevax [131-F-5-F3b 026] (Smith, Kline and French) and Meruvax [131-F-5-F3b 029]…

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Jun. 26, 1970

The Voluntary Association for Health and Welfare of British Columbia passes a motion [131-F-5-F3b 034] to urge for the immediate implementation of a mass immunization campaign against rubella

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Jun. 27, 1970

The Vancouver Province publishes an editorial [131-F-5-F3b 047] about the rubella epidemic

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Jun. 30, 1970

Vancouver’s Metropolitan Health Board steps up its efforts [131-F-5-F3b 043] to secure funding and support from the Provincial Government for a mass rubella immunization campaign; proposed plan is to secure federal and provincial funding for…

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July 1970

As rubella epidemic spreads, demand increases [131-F-5-F3b 015] for a mass rubella immunization campaign throughout Metropolitan Vancouver; B.C. Health Minister continues negotiations [131-F-5-F3b 025] with U.S. vaccine manufacturers to secure…

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July 1970

The Rubella Eradication Committee of the Kinsmen Foundation of Vancouver [131-F-5-F3c 047], citing the effects of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) [131-F-5-F3b 007], seeks donations and support for a mass rubella immunization campaign

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July 1970

The Provincial Government makes H.I. testing for rubella susceptibility freely available to all pregnant women [131-F-5-F3c 044]

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Jul. 3, 1970

The Vancouver Section of the National Council of Jewish Women of Canada [131-F-5-F3b 037] urges B.C. Premier, W.A.C. Bennett, and Minister of Health, Ralph Loffmark, to adopt the Metropolitan Board of Health’s proposed mass rubella immunization…

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Jul. 25, 1970

The B.C. Division of the Canadian Medical Association issues a press release [131-F-5-F3c 027] challenging “the recent statement by Canadian Health Minister John Munro that at this time an epidemic of German measles [rubella] does not exist in…

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Jul. 31, 1970

Vancouver City Council puts forward a motion [131-F-5-F3c 012] to secure additional funding from the Provincial and Federal Governments to guarantee the effective implementation in Metropolitan Vancouver of the rubella vaccination campaign

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August 1970

In a letter to the DPH, the Dartmouth branch of the MSNS calls on the Department to immediately introduce a rubella vaccination program in order to prevent an “imminent” epidemic of rubella.

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Aug. 7, 1970

The Vancouver Sun applauds the success of province-wide efforts to stem the rubella epidemic [131-F-5-F3c 028], in an effort to generate funds and support for mass immunization campaign

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Aug. 11, 1970

The Greater Victoria Metropolitan Board of Health announces its intentions [131-F-5-F3c 025] to provide rubella vaccine to girls in grade six, and school children in grades one through four, at the start of the school year, followed by a campaign…

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Aug. 17, 1970

The Health Branch of B.C.’s Department of Health Services and Hospital Insurance issues an administrative circular [131-F-5-F3c 010] to all Health Unit Directors in anticipation of the September 1970 rubella vaccination campaign

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September 1970

Rubeola and rubella are made reportable diseases in B.C. so that Medical Health Officers in the province can use reporting data to determine the effectiveness of newly available vaccines for both diseases [“Rubeola and Rubella to Become…

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September 1970

“Stamp Out Rubella” or “Rubella ’70,” the Greater Vancouver Health Department’s campaign to immunize all schoolchildren between the ages of 1-12, commences on September 14, 1970; approximately 128 000 of the 166 000 eligible children…

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October 1970

Rubella vaccination is introduced in Public Health clinics (evidence that DPH uses Meruvax for rubella vaccination in 1970s) [PANS, RG 25, Vol. 674, File 15].

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Oct. 7, 1970

Provincial Epidemiologist A.A. Larsen writes to all B.C. Health Unit Directors, instructing them to report on “any reactions of any consequence” [131-F-5-F3b 003] following the administration of rubella vaccine; all reported reactions are to…

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Oct. 22, 1970

Vancouver City Council moves to seek reimbursement [131-F-5-F3b 058] from the B.C. Ministry of Health for approximately $27 000 used for the purchase of additional vaccine for “Rubella ’70”

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Nov. 12, 1970

Vancouver Medical Health Officer, Dr. G.H. Bonham, thanks Vancouver School Board staff [131-F-5-F3c 001] for their contributions to the success of “Rubella ’70”

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December 1970

The B.C. Health Branch confirms the availability of H.I. testing, to be used to determine susceptibility in pregnant women who may have come into contact with a suspected rubella case [“Rubella HI Test Freely Available,” B.C. Medical Journal…

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Dec. 22, 1970

B.C. Ministry of Health refuses Vancouver City Council’s request for reimbursement [131-F-5-F3b 059] for additional monies used to fund “Rubella ’70”

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1971

Public Health nurses are authorized by the DPH to give immunizations in order to cut down on waiting times in clinics and to reach those in homes that are unable to attend clinics [PANS, Acc. 2013-017, File 1324].

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January 1971

The Child Health Committee of the MSNS recommends that the attenuated live mumps vaccine be given to “pre-adolescents and older males who have no previous history of mumps infection and for children in closed population groups (i.e….

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March 1971

Results of the province-wide 1970 rubella immunization programme are published in the B.C. Medical Journal with an accompanying announcement that a “second wave of [rubella] is presently occurring” across the province; according to the…

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1971-1972

B.C. experiences a widespread outbreak of mumps from Winter 1971 to Spring 1972 [“Mumps,” B.C. Medical Journal 14.6 (June 1972): 155 or B.C. Medical Journal 1972 Mumps Outbreak]

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1972

Concern among some doctors that measles rates in Nova Scotia remain high despite the availability of the measles vaccine. It is reported at the 116th Annual Meeting of the Medical Society of Nova Scotia that 16% of all cases of measles in Canada…

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1972

Government releases the report “A Change in Emphasis for the Department of Public Health” as a response to the introduction of MSI and the acknowledgement that many Nova Scotians now receive the basic health care, and especially…

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January 1972

The B.C. Health Branch initiates a study of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), to determine the number of newborns affected by the 1970-1971 rubella epidemic; the project requires the cooperation of all B.C. physicians, who will collect blood…

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August 1974

The B.C. Minister of Health, Dennis Cooke, reports that after a few years of reduced cases, rubella is “again on the increase” across the province, with an unexpectedly sharp increase in cases of rubella in spring 1974, in Vancouver,…

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1975

The MMR Vaccine by Merck, Sharpe and Dohme is made available for use in public health clinics. It is introduced for children up to 5 years of age.

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1976

The Rubella vaccination program is initiated in order to vaccinate all eleven-year old girls, although policy regarding whether or not the vaccine should be given to menstruating girls is not yet clear.

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1976

Vaccinations for smallpox are discontinued in Nova Scotia.

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1977

Recognition in DPH that the introduction of MSI has made it difficult to track immunization coverage because data from doctors’ offices is not shared with Department [PANS, RG 25, Vol. 674, File 17]. Department begins to consider new methods of…

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1977

Due to the failure (i.e. decreased immunization coverage) of the “community-based” immunization program in the Atlantic Unit, a school-based program is re-introduced [PANS, RG 25, Vol. 674, File 10].

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1977

The Department of Public Health introduces “Immunization Month” in November. The evaluation of the first year finds that there was an increase of over 17,000 vaccinations administered in the last quarter of 1977 as compared with the final…

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1977

The Department of Public Health becomes the Department of Health. It undergoes a major reorganization.

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November 1977

The MSNS makes a formal request to the Minister of Health for the Department to provide free live vaccines to private physicians.

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1978

Serological testing in Bedford in order to test effectiveness of “quad” vaccine (DPTP) finds that many children have “inadequate immunity” to polio [PANS, RG 25, Vol. 674, File 14].

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September 1978

The Advisory Committee on Communicable Disease Control with the Department makes a recommendation that live vaccines be supplied to private physicians, and that a small committee be set up to ensure the proper handling and controls of vaccines in…

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1979

Rubeola (red measles) epidemic breaks out in British Columbia (1 801 cases are notified) [242-F-2-F6 012], as well as in other Canadian provinces and parts of the U.S.

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1979

The DH announces a “reciprocal reporting mechanism” to help track vaccination coverage in the province. Doctors are provided with free live vaccines (including MMR and Rubella) and in return are expected to notify the department of…

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March 1979

Rubeola outbreak confirmed in West Kootenays [129-F-5-F2 001]

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1979

Target for “Immunization Month” is to increase vaccination for rubella.

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1980

Victorian Order of Nurses no longer administer immunization clinics – responsibility for all public immunization clinics taken over by the DH. However, V.O.N. nurses still take part in clinics [PANS, MG 20, Vol. 3513].

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1980

The title Public Health Nurse is changed to “Community Health Nurse.” The DPH advises nurses in preparation for media interviews to say that it was changed in order to “reflect the broad scope of the services and community contacts of the…

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May 1980

Vancouver Health Department’s Medical Advisory Committee on Immunization recommends that mass rubella immunization in preschool children be discontinued, and that future campaigns target susceptible adolescent and adult women [130-G-3-F8 008]

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1980-1981

To increase coverage against measles, the Vancouver Health Department introduces a policy [130-G-3-F8 004] to screen all boys and girls in grades nine and ten for rubeola (red measles) protection, and all girls in grades nine and ten for rubella…

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May 1981

Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine becomes “available through the public health system for use after a child’s first birthday”; due to supply issues, however, “MMR will not be widely distributed to physicians,” and so the Health…

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1981

November “Immunization Month” focuses on measles [PANS, RG 25, Vol. 674, File 7].

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1982

Together, the Vancouver Health Department and the Vancouver School Board jointly initiate “a policy of measles exclusion [242-F-2-F6 007] for lack of information regarding immunization status,” to be implemented in the event of a measles…

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1984

Province faces measles mumps rubella (MMR) vaccine supply shortages [242-F-2-F6 012] amidst measles outbreaks throughout B.C.

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1984

The Department of Health introduces the DPTP vaccine for children.

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May 1984

In response to measles outbreaks across the province, the Vancouver Health Department and Vancouver School Board put into effect their joint policy on measles exclusion [242-F-2-F6 020]

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1985-1986

Major outbreak of measles in Nova Scotia. Although this was a national problem, Nova Scotia was particularly affected. Between January 1985 to April 1986, Nova Scotia represented 11% of cases in Canada, despite only making up about 3% of the…

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1985

Target for November “Immunization Month” is the identification of and immunization for measles.

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1986

The Department of Health introduced an MMR booster for people immunized prior to Jan. 1, 1975.

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1986

Theme for November “Immunization Month” is “Put Measles on the Spot”

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1987

The Department of Health is renamed the Department of Health and Fitness after it takes responsibility for that portfolio from the former Department of Culture, Recreation and Fitness.

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1988

Rubella booster for 11-year old girls is eliminated from the immunization schedule.

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August 1990

A press release issued by the Vancouver Health Department announces that, in 1991, measles is expected to break out across Vancouver; the report cites recent measles outbreaks in a number of major North American cities, including Montreal, Quebec…

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Aug. 2, 1990

As the Vancouver Health Department braces for a measles epidemic in 1991, which is expected to affect major cities across Canada, the Vancouver Sun reports on “a nationwide shortage of the measles vaccine” [720-E-3-F11 003]

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Oct. 5-7, 1994

The first Canadian Immunization Conference is held in Quebec City. The title is “Immunization in the 90s: Challenges & Solutions”.

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Dec. 8-11, 1996

The second Canadian Immunization Conference is held in Toronto. The title is “Immunizing for Health – Achieving Our National Goals”.

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Dec. 6-9, 1998

The third Canadian Immunization Conference is held in Calgary. The title is “Partnerships for Health Through Immunization”.

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Dec. 3-6, 2000

The fourth Canadian Immunization Conference is held in Halifax. The title is “Immunization in the 21st Century: Progress Through Education”.

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Dec. 1-3, 2002

The fifth Canadian Immunization Conference is held in Victoria. The title is “Canada’s National Immunization Strategy: From Vision to Action”.

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Dec. 5-8, 2004

The sixth Canadian Immunization Conference is held in Montreal. The title is “Immunization in Canada: Science – Programmes – Collaboration”.

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Dec. 3-6, 2006

The seventh Canadian Immunization Conference is held in Winnipeg. The title is “Celebrating Immunization in Canada: Achievements and Opportunities”.

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Nov. 30 – Dec. 3, 2008

The eighth Canadian Immunization Conference is held in Toronto. The title is “Partnership, Innovation and Education”.

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Dec. 5-8, 2010

The ninth Canadian Immunization Conference is held in Quebec City. The title is “Immunization: A Global Challenge for the 21st Century”.

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Dec. 3-5, 2012

The tenth Canadian Immunization Conference is held in Vancouver. The title is “Excellence in Immunization: Empowering, Engaging and Educating”.

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Dec. 2-4, 2014

The eleventh Canadian Immunization Conference is held in Ottawa. The title is “CIC 2014”.

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